米兰圣拉斐尔医院新外科和急救中心 | MC A建筑事务所
阅读:3173 2022-10-12

曾被中国媒体喻为“ 会吸霾” 的医院,米兰圣拉斐尔医院新外科和急救中心落成了。

米兰圣拉斐尔医院名列“2021年全球最佳医院”榜第88位,是意大利乃至欧洲公认最负盛名的医疗中心之一。

聚焦人性化医疗,营造安全舒适的就医环境,以可持续的方式打造绿色医院,将成为意大利首家获得 LEED 金奖认证的医院。

San Raffaele Hospital ranks 88th in the "Best Hospitals in the World 2021" list, and is recognized as one of the most prestigious medical centers in Italy and even Europe.

The new Surgical and Emergency Center of San Raffaele Hospital, which was once hailed by the Chinese media as a "smog-sucking" hospital, was completed. Focusing on humanized medical care, creating a safe and comfortable medical environment, and building a green hospital in a sustainable way, it will become the first hospital in Italy to receive the LEED Gold Award.

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冰山医院

 

这座10层新建筑,因独特的造型而得名“冰山” ,是米兰重要医疗体系,圣拉斐尔生命健康大学及附属圣拉斐尔医院的一部分。考虑到区域内密集的建筑群多建于19世纪七八十年代,风格迥异。作为既有医院的扩建,以垂直发展代替水平扩张弧形的立面,对城市边界做出退让,呈现高度开放与通透的姿态,使建筑自然融入周边环境。向上延展的细长百叶,从视觉上消减体量在高密度的城市环境内揉进轻盈的设计语言,使得塔楼在裙房基座之上形成 “漂浮感”,令人一眼即可识别,成为医疗建筑的新标杆

The 10-story new building so-called "Iceberg," because of its peculiar shape, is part of Milan's important medical system, Università Vita-Salute San Raffaele and IRCCS San Raffaele Hospital. Considering that most of the dense buildings in the area were built in the 1870s and 1880s, the styles are quite different. As an extension in the heart of the existing hospital, abandoning the scheme of horizontal squares to rise in height, combining functionality and aesthetics. The curved façade makes a concession to the urban boundary, showing a highly open and transparent attitude, so that the building naturally integrates into the surrounding environment. The slender louvers extending upwards reduce the volume visually, and incorporate a light design language into the high-density urban environment, making the tower form a "floatingfeeling on the base, which is instantly recognized to be the new benchmark for medical buildings.

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项目由两个在建筑和功能上相辅相成的部分组成:容纳手术室、重症监护室和急诊室等医院基本职能的裙楼;以及容纳病房、医生办公室和门诊部的塔楼以超越国际前沿水准,满足患者对最先进医疗技术、综合护理和温馨医疗环境日益增长的需求

The new building consists of two significant elements that complement each other both architecturally and functionally: the technical plate that houses the most essential hospital functions (such as the surgical block, intensive care, and emergency room) and the tower, which houses the wards, doctors’ offices, and outpatient departments. Both complement the growing demand for care at the international level. 

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建筑平面简洁近似矩,整体以实用为标准,合理布局空间,对流程布置功能房间设置等方面都进行了详尽的控制:如将放置较重医疗设备的功能房间尽量设于地面一层,有效降低前期建造成本及后期运营人力成本和能耗成高效顺畅的动线流程能够极大地提升医院的运营效率,缓解就医压力和矛盾。所有房间均能自然采光通风,大大减少了医院的运营成本。
The building plan is simple and approximately rectangular. The whole is based on practicality. The space is rationally arranged, and the process layout and functional room settings are controlled in detail. For example, the functional rooms where heavier medical equipment is placed should be located on the ground floor as much as possible. Effectively reduce the initial construction cost and the later operation labor cost and energy consumption cost. Efficient and smooth moving process can greatly improve the operational efficiency of the hospital and relieve the pressure and contradictions of medical treatment. All rooms are naturally lit and ventilated, which greatly reduces the hospital's operating costs.
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病房和公共区域的设计、空间质量、自然光线、色彩等等,全方位让患者在满足治疗需求之余,仍能获得对自我身份的认同感与真诚的尊重感。这就是我们建筑人文关怀的出发点。

Mario Cucinella






疗愈空间的人文关怀



立面上轻微的弧度,使病房的外部视野区别于其他部分,同时改善了立面中央区域的自然光线穿透效果白色玻璃幕墙空灵的外观引入了一种平静的感觉,与日光追逐,点亮夜空。建筑成为整个院区的中心,融合了功能与美学,被誉为 “疗愈之地”。

The slight curvature of the elevations makes it possible to differentiate the external view from the patient rooms and improves access to natural light in the central part of the façade. The ethereal appearance of the white glass façade introduces a sense of calm, chasing with daylight and lighting up the night sky. The building becomes the center of the entire campus, integrating function and aesthetics, and is known as a welcome "healing place".
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顺应立面结构的特色,在建筑四角设置玻璃公共会客厅,为病患及家属们提供了一个可以非正式会面、休息、祈祷并互相鼓励的空间。在冬季,这些空间作为太阳能温室减少了室内对供暖的需求。而在夏季,空调及立面遮阳百叶,满足了人们对舒适度和温度控制的需求。光线和绿植等自然元素融入到设计中,营造面向病房和办公室开放的绿色空间,提高医疗环境品质以及使用者的幸福感。

Another characteristic element of the envelope is the large glass surfaces at the corners of the building, where communal living rooms for the patients and their families to meet informally, rest, pray and encourage each other.. In winter, these spaces serve as solar greenhouses, reducing the need for heating, while in summer, they are air-conditioned to meet the demand for comfort and thermo-hygrometric control. Natural elements – light and greenery – integrated into the design increase the quality of the interior spaces and the well-being of the users. The solutions open visually to the green spaces from both the patient rooms and the offices,  improving the quality of the medical environment and the well-being of users.

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裙楼之上的屋顶花园,则为使用者提供了一处户外休憩之地,打造与自然对话的景观平台。从不断变化的自然环境中,激发使用者的正向情感消除身心障碍。同时,大面积的绿化可以缓解大气浮尘,净化空气,减少碳排放

The roof garden above the podium provides users with an outdoor resting place, creating a landscape platform for dialogue with nature. From the ever-changing natural environment, it stimulates the positive emotions of users and eliminates physical and mental barriers. At the same time, large-scale greening can alleviate atmospheric dust, purify the air, and reduce carbon emissions.

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像冰山一样的白色皮肤,不是噱头,而是一个先进的防雾陶瓷百叶系统,采用能够减少空气污染,反射太阳光线的材料。

Mario Cucinella






可持续设计策略



新的外科和急救中心采用全玻璃幕墙,外表皮由双重生物气候功能通高垂直陶瓷百叶编织而成。百叶的宽度跟随太阳路径发生变化,为室内提供遮阳。百叶在玻璃表面投下阴影,有助于减少太阳辐射造成的热负荷降低室内空间对空调的能源需求同时,通过陶瓷表面的反射,更多自然光照进室内。陶瓷百叶采用一种特殊的二氧化钛催化涂层,能捕捉大气中的污染颗粒,这些颗粒被太阳光线惰性化,然后被大气降水冲走该材料在建筑的周围环境中发挥着积极作用,促进臭氧转化为氧分子被誉为“会吸霾”的建筑

Characterised by a building envelope entirely clad in glass, the new Surgical and Emergency Centre has a tightly woven façade made up of full-height vertical louvers which perform a dual bioclimatic function. Thanks to the shadows cast on the glazing, these sunshades help to reduce the thermal loads caused by solar radiation, reducing the energy requirements for air conditioning of the interior spaces and, at the same time, increasing the amount of natural light diffused into the rooms through reflection on the ceramic surfaces. A special catalytic coating of titanium dioxide makes the tiles traps polluting particles in the atmosphere, which are inerted by the sun’s rays and then washed away by atmospheric precipitation. The same material plays an active role in the building’s surroundings, promoting the chemical transformation of ozone into oxygen molecules. It known as a "smog-sucking" building.
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秉承绿色建筑的原则,室内材料选择符合健康和卫生最佳标准不含挥发性有机化合物(VOC)的产品,打造更健康、更安全的环境。室内饰面采用抗菌粗陶板,这种材料兼具极高的机械强度和耐久性,并且可以抑制有害健康的微生物进行繁殖。家具和卫浴设备同样经过精心设计:前者由不含甲醛的生态可持续材料制成,而后者在浴室、病房和诊室的盥洗台上采用抗菌涂层处理。

室内外均采用可再生材料和绿植,改善空气质量,为病患、家属、访客及医务工作者提供舒适和有助治愈的环境。

The principles of the green building were the basis for the choice of materials for covering the interior spaces, combining the best standards of health and hygiene with the use of products free of emissions of volatile organic compounds (VOC), protecting the health of the environment. After banning synthetic materials widely used in hospital construction, such as PVC, the interior surfaces are covered with antibacterial stoneware slabs, a product combining extremely high mechanical strength and durability with an action that inhibits the proliferation of microorganisms harmful to health. The same attention has been paid to the furnishings and sanitary fittings: the former are made of eco-sustainable materials free of formaldehyde, while the latter is treated with an antibacterial coating on the washbasins in the bathrooms, patient rooms, and clinics. 
The use of recycled materials and greenery, both outside and inside, will further improve air quality and the well-being perceived by patients, staff, and visitors.
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该建筑的设计旨在追求与医院空间品质及其人性化要求密切相关的可持续发展理念MCA将设计美学、医疗功能性、自然共生与绿色技术相结合,营造有感知、有自信、有归属感的温暖疗愈氛围,实现患者“生理”和“心理”的双重治愈。
The design of the building aims to pursue the concept of sustainable development closely related to the quality of the hospital space and its humanized requirements. MCA combines design aesthetics, medical functionality, natural symbiosis and green technology to create a warm healing atmosphere with perception, self-confidence and a sense of belonging, and achieve dual healing of patients' "physiology" and "psychology".
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项目图纸


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 ▲ 二层平面图


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▲ 三层平面图

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▲ 剖面图

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▲ 南立面图

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▲ 西立面图


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▲ 立面节点




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项目信息


位置意大利,米兰

时间2021年

客户IRCCS Ospedale San Raffaele

团队:Mario Cucinella, Marco Dell’Agli, Giulio Desiderio, Michele Olivieri, Emanuele Dionig, Martina Buccitti, Laura Mancini; Alberto Menozzi, Giuseppe Perrone, Matteo Donini, Lello Fulginiti, Daniele Basso. 生物气候设计: Andrea Rossi. 模型: Yuri Costantini, Ambra Cicognani, Andrea Genovesi  竞赛: Eurind Caka, Stefano Bastia

视觉效果:Engram Studio; Paris Studio

摄影Duccio Malagamba 

项目管理Alessandro Bartucci; Adriano Moras

浴布局InAr Ingegneria Architettura

结构工程Ballardini Studio di Ingegnaria

技术设备Deerns Italia SpA

建设公司Itinera SpA

安全协调:Giuseppe Omodeo

立面Aza Aghito Zambonini Srl



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