WATG设计洞见 | 重生景观及其对环境、经济和人们生活的影响
阅读:3507 2021-05-18

本文由WATG亚太及中国区区域董事总经理Robert Day撰写。This article is written by Robert Day, WATG Regional Managing Director Asia Pacific + China.


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清溪川,一个10.9公里长的现代公共娱乐场所,位于韩国首尔市中心,由Francisco Anzola拍摄


春天的回归总是带来清新感,而2021年这份清新感的到来意味着我们在全球新冠疫情中度过了整整一年。许多城市中,当人们因疫情而被迫远离公共空间之际,现代生活方式对环境的影响更加显著。昔日精心打理的公园和公共开放空间回到更原始的生长状态,草坪和树木不再每周修剪。本土的树木和灌木开始自由生长,呈现出生机勃勃的姿态。这并不意味着我们对这些景观的弃置,相反,它们是富有匠心、充满韧性的设计的体现。在如今这个越来越多人造景观的城市环境中,实现了人与自然和谐相处的目标。


Spring returns every year with a sense of reawakening, but in 2021 that sense is pronounced as we mark a full year of living within a global pandemic. In many cities, the impact of modern lifestyles on the environment has been made more visible by our forced retreat away from the public realm. Once manicured parks and public open spaces have returned to a more natural state of growth. Grass is no longer mowed weekly nor plants tightly trimmed. Native trees and shrubs are re-establishing themselves and have begun to take over. But this does not mean dereliction or the creation of attractors for anti-social uses. Instead, it is deliberate holistic and resilient design – humans working with nature within our increasingly artificial urban environments – truly achieving its goal.


我把这些称作“重生景观”,它们带来近乎无限的机遇和一系列的优势,包括:


I call these “reawakened landscapes,” and they present nearly limitless opportunities and a long list of benefits, including:


1)更富生物多样性和自然美景的邻里公园;为农贸市集、健身、餐饮、休闲及冥想等户外活动提供更天然的环境;

Neighborhood parks with increased biodiversity and natural beauty; a more natural backdrop to outdoor activities such as farmers’ markets, fitness, dining, relaxing, and meditating.


2)相互联通的开放空间为步行和骑行而设,兼具休闲和交通功能,如同我们为伦敦和纽约设计的绿色街区模式;

A linked network of open spaces for walking and biking for both recreation and commuting, as we’ve designed with our Green Block models for London and New York City.


3)优化的雨水管理、侵蚀控制和蓄水系统;

Improved rainwater management, erosion control and water retention storage.


4)更多的野生动物、蝴蝶、蜜蜂和鸟类在此栖居;为学校和大学的科学研究、实验室以及户外教学提供更多机会;

Increased wildlife, butterfly, honeybee, and bird habitats; increased opportunities for scientific study, learning labs and/or outdoor classrooms with schools and universities.


5)对劳动力和灌溉的依赖性减小从而节省了成本;

Reduced costs due to decreased reliance on labor and irrigation.


6)减少了卡车、割草机、修剪机及吹叶机的噪音和空气污染;

Reduced noise and air pollution caused by trucks, lawn mowers, trimmers and leaf blowers.


7)提升了社会福利和社区荣誉感,舒缓压力和焦虑情绪。

Improved social wellbeing and community pride; reduced stress and anxiety.


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碧山宏茂桥公园,新加坡最大的绿地之一


大部分重生景观坐落于城市花园和公园之中,位于道路沿线、道路中间分隔带以及建筑物的立面、上方或附近,它们并不花费成本,只需任其与当地动植物一起自由生长。气候通常是这些景观的决定因素,所以重生景观在热带地区更容易实现,而在较寒冷的地区,植物繁茂的季节较短,则需采取更耐心、更长远的方式。社会条件也是重生景观的决定性因素之一,新加坡去年的经历就是例证,疫情带来的“断路器”阶段导致了劳动力的短缺和公共空间维护的减少,“花园城市”呈现出些许野生的状态。而其正面效果是令人惊喜的,与新加坡“大自然里的城市” 的愿景不谋而合。


Sited in urban gardens and parks, along roadways, in medians, and on, above, or adjacent to built structures, many reawakened areas cost nothing and can be left to simply grow out with the local range of plants and animals. Climate often dictates this and is easier to achieve in the tropics, while colder areas with shorter growing seasons require a more patient, long-term approach. Social conditions make a difference too, as they did in Singapore, where last year’s “circuit breaker” period of lockdown led to a labor shortage and reductions in public space maintenance. The garden city grew a little wilder! The positive results caught some by surprise, and almost by accident propelled the country’s City in Nature principles forward.


另外一部分重生景观则投入了相当多的资金,如新加坡的碧山公园和首尔的清溪川。在清溪川的重生设计中,其旧式混凝土冷水系统被重新启用,变身为更天然的溪流与公园,供居民和游客享用,也成为了有价值的城市便利设施。在这两个案例中,无论景观重生建造所需时间的长短,更天然的城市景观终将带来具有成本效益的,有意义而实用的,仅需少量维护的绿色空间。


Other reawakened landscapes require considerable investment, such as Bishan Park, Singapore, or Cheonggyechon, Seoul, where old concrete water systems have been brought back to life as more natural streams and parks – valuable urban amenities that can be seen and enjoyed by residents and visitors. In both cases, whether this reawakening happens quickly or over time, more natural urban landscapes ultimately provide a cost effective, low maintenance green space that’s meaningful and useful.

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新加坡东海岸公园的重生景观计划


现在是时候重新设计这些空间了,而不是任由昔日的城市景观自生自灭,原因如下:


Now is the time to design these landscapes from the start rather than simply letting former urban spaces grow wild on their own. Here's why:


1)城市建设预算被削减,而维护和劳动力的成本在上升;

Civic budgets are being cut, while costs of maintenance and labor are rising.


2)极端天气越来越频发,人们愈加关注气候及其对人和地球环境的影响;

Concerns about the climate and its impact on people and planet are heightened as weather conditions and events become more extreme.


3)人们越来越欣赏大自然,也更意识到高度施肥和人工修剪的单一物种栽培(如草坪)的负面影响。

People are gaining an appreciation of nature and are becoming more aware of the negative impact of highly fertilized and manicured single species monocultures, such as mown grass.


4)新冠疫情除了导致劳动力短缺,还彰显出人们对于大自然、新鲜空气和开放户外空间的需求,及其对人们身心健康的重要性。我们开始认识到,城市的绿色空间(或其缺失)不仅影响到房产价值和税收收入,也会影响城市的自生与恢复能力。

In addition to causing labor shortages, Covid-19 has also amplified the need for access to nature, fresh air, and open outdoor spaces – underscoring the impact of this access on physical and mental health. We’ve come to appreciate that a city’s green space (or lack thereof) has direct implications on property values and tax revenue, and ultimately on its ability to be self-reliant and resilient.


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新加坡碧山宏茂桥公园俯视图


另一个令景观战略规划设计变得更为紧迫的因素是无人驾驶汽车的普及。


Another factor making strategic landscape planning and design more urgent is the increasing use of autonomous vehicles.


无人驾驶汽车的普及往往被当作未来幻想而被忽视,而它很可能迅速而显著地增加交通量,因为人们更倾向于私家车出行而不是公共交通。这一点可能与当下减少私家车拥有量的讨论相悖,也有悖于交通更少城市会更美好的假设。无人驾驶汽车成为了新型的公共交通。由于省去了司机的人工成本,乘坐无人驾驶汽车的价格更低,私家车和公共交通的价格差距逐渐缩小,私家车因其更方便的点对点服务而更受人们青睐。因此,道路需要拓宽,不仅为了容纳更多的汽车,也为了给上下车的通道留出空间,昔日的出租车车站不再适用。居民和城市规划者将会寻求更多的绿色空间来平衡增加的车辆和拓宽的道路。同时,停车空间不再那么重要,可以把它们建造在相互连通的重生景观上(这会增加交通压力),或者令其成为重生景观网络的一部分。


Often overlooked as futuristic fantasy, the expanded use of driverless cars has the potential to increase traffic quickly and dramatically as people opt for individual vehicles instead of mass transit – a point that might seem counterintuitive in today’s conversations about declines in individual car ownership (and thus the assumption that cities will enjoy less traffic). Autonomous cars simply become a new form of public transit. As the price of autonomous car ride-hailing decreases (by eliminating the labor costs of drivers), and the price differential narrows between personalized and mass transit, it’s likely that people will opt for the convenience of the personal point-to-point service. Roads, as a result, may need to be widened not only for dedicated pick up and drop off lanes, since dedicated taxi ranks will no longer be applicable, but also simply to accommodate more cars. Residents – and city planners – will seek more green space to balance this out. Meanwhile, parking spaces become less important, and could either be built on (adding more traffic pressure) or turned into networks of interconnected reawakened landscapes.


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韩国首尔的清溪川,由Ethan Brooke拍摄


值得一提的是,重生景观的自然样貌是特意规划的,并不意味着野生和杂乱,需要在其间清理垃圾,打理植物,控制外来动植物物种,维护绿色空间,避免过度生长的草木和滋生害虫及传播细菌的死水,并将危机健康的风险减到最小。自然景观并不等于荒芜杂乱,否则将会为地产价值、健康安全和社区荣誉感带来负面影响。重生景观在人口数量正在减少的地区尤为重要。如果应用得当,重生景观将成为维护需求更低的城市美化设施,成为人们向往和愿意停留的地方。


It is important to consider that reawakened landscapes are intentionally designed to look natural, but not totally wild and unkempt. Litter is removed, plantings are managed, invasive species are kept under control, and green spaces are maintained in order to minimize health risks – avoiding overgrown grasses and stagnant water that breed pests or spread bacteria. A natural look does not equate to an abandoned look, since this would have adverse effects on property values, safety and community pride. This is especially important in areas experiencing depopulation. Done right, reawakened landscapes become low maintenance attractive urban amenities that contribute to the sense of place, creating a place where people want to be, and stay.


作为景观规划师,我们的战略性设计干预,将从生物学、可持续发展、栖居地创建和维护的角度,确保花草树木适得其所。景观成本降低和韧性提升的根源在于优秀的设计,而不是管理和资金的匮乏。


As landscape architects, our strategic design interventions ultimately ensure that we’re putting the right plants in the right place in terms of ecology, sustainability, habitat creation, and maintenance. Costs go down and resilience goes up because of good design, not because of lack of care or budget.


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Chris Panfil 是WATG 新加坡分公司的副总裁兼策划及城市设计总监。在过去的20年间,他工作的重点之一是了解、改善和设计我们的城市空间以及创意设计方案在历史、文化和环境中的作用。近日,他受邀在上海市建筑学会2020年学术高峰论坛上分享了自己的见解——可持续发展与韧性城市建筑:建筑表皮与城市的关系。
2021-02-04WATG温艾唐古 洞见 建筑表皮  阅读:4650


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