“地拉那金字塔” | MVRDV
阅读:822 2021-02-23

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图/Image: © MVRDV

“地拉那金字塔”位于阿尔巴尼亚首都地拉那的中心地带,始建于1988年,彼时是用来纪念阿尔巴尼亚共产主义领袖Enver Hoxha的纪念碑,是一座具有代表性的粗野主义建筑,MVRDV对这座历史建筑制定了颠覆性的改造方案,现已正式动工。设计师保留了原有的混凝土结构,“打开”了中庭区域及建筑周围的空间、增加了景观,同时在金字塔内外设置了咖啡馆、工作室和教室,形成一座小型的“村落”,阿尔巴尼亚的年轻人们可以在这里免费学习各种技能。未来的“地拉那金字塔”将成为首都文化生活的新枢纽,也是培养新一代青年的孵化器。


Construction has started on the Pyramid of Tirana, the brutalist monument in the heart of Albania’s capital city. MVRDV's design will see this crucial heritage building, once the showpiece of Communist leader Enver Hoxha, dramatically renovated. The concrete structure will be reused, the atrium and its surroundings greened and opened, and a small village of cafes, studios, workshops, and classrooms – where Albanian youth will learn various technology subjects for free – will permeate the site, both inside and outside the pyramid itself. The Pyramid is thus expected to become a new hub for Tirana's cultural life and a carrier for the new generation.


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图/Image: © 网络 Internet
“地拉那金字塔”历史图片
historical photos of the Pyramid of Tirana


这座占地11,835平方米的金字塔经历了诸多历史变迁:最初是为纪念阿尔巴尼亚共产主义领袖Enver Hoxha而建造的博物馆;在科索沃战争期间,它成为北约的临时基地,之后还变身成为夜总会和活动空间。对于许多阿尔巴尼亚人来说,“地拉那金字塔”是一个非常受欢迎的目的地,这里的年轻人曾将其用作聚会场所,在外墙上画满了涂鸦,还经常趁着夜晚不顾危险地攀上斜坡,然后再顺着斜坡滑下来嬉闹。

The 11,835m2 Pyramid has had several lives in the past: originally constructed as a museum dedicated to Enver Hoxha, it has also served as a temporary base for NATO during the War in Kosovo, a nightclub, and an event space. For many Albanians the Pyramid is a popular destination for gathering. In an attempt to reclaim the deteriorating structure, the youth of Tirana have used it as a hangout and a canvas for graffiti, and often climb it at night and then – not without risk – slide down its slopes.


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建筑现状

existing building



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图/Image: © MVRDV



近年来,针对“地拉那金字塔”的多次改造计划都无疾而终,内部空间因此变得杂乱昏暗,最后只能停止开放。MVRDV的设计彻底将建筑物“打开”,下雨时,巨大的玻璃挡板闭合,可以阻挡雨水。同时移除了曾经翻新时增建的部分,留出宽敞开阔的内部空间。新增的绿植和其他景观元素,为室内的开放空间带来宜人的氛围。MVRDV在室内置入了若干个“盒子”,分布在原有结构内外,形成一个“村落”,“村落”中包含教室、工作室,咖啡馆和餐厅等多种功能空间。非营利性教育机构TUMO Tirana将成为“金字塔”的主要使用者,它将在这里为12至18岁的青少年提供免费的课外教育,涵盖软件、机器人技术、动画、音乐和电影等课程。

Plans in recent years to transform the structure only partially materialized, leaving the interior cluttered and dark. MVRDV’s design will radically open up the building, which is now hermetically sealed and inaccessible. Huge glass flaps close the building when it rains. Additions from previous renovations will be stripped away to reveal a voluminous interior space. Trees and other greenery give this open space a welcoming appearance. Boxes containing individual rooms are placed inside, upon, and around the existing structure. This will create a village of classrooms, studios, cafes, and restaurants. Non-profit educational institution TUMO Tirana will be the main user of the Pyramid, providing free afterschool education for 12- to 18-year-olds in new techniques such as software, robotics, animation, music, and film.



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 现有建筑 
 existing building 


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 清理结构 

 clean up structure 



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 在外立面上增加台阶 
 add stairs to exterior 


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 置入新的功能 

 add programme 



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 建立建筑与景观的联系 
 connect with landscape 


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 微气候控制 
 control the microclimate 


设计师在倾斜的混凝土梁上增加了台阶,使游客可以安全地登上金字塔顶端。保留了其中一条斜坡,人们可以选择自行滑下,但要自担风险。新增的台阶还可以用于观光和临时性的活动,让“地拉那金字塔”和周围的广场回归地拉那文化生活的中心地位。

Steps are added to the sloping concrete beams, making it safe for visitors to literally walk to the top of the pyramid – preserving the appropriating that began with the citizens of Tirana. One of the beams will be preserved as a slope that visitors can slide down – at their own risk. These steps can also be used for sightseeing and temporary events, returning the Pyramid and the surrounding plaza to their function as an important central point for cultural life in Tirana.


Winy Maas

MVRDV创始合伙人

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“改造像‘地拉那金字塔’这样的粗野主义建筑是我的梦想。阿尔巴尼亚人对这座建筑的未来进行了不懈的努力,其间的历程让人惊讶,也非常有趣,一方面,它代表了这个国家历史上颇具争议的一段章节;另一方面,地拉那的居民已经用自己的方式对部分建筑进行利用和改造。我感受到了它的巨大潜力,它可以成为真正属于人民的纪念碑,不应该被拆除。这个项目具有挑战性的地方,是如何在建筑物和周围环境之间建立新的关系。我相信我们可以通过设计实现这个想法。很期待未来看到年轻人们能够再次在金字塔上攀爬,年长的人们也能够沿着新增的台阶登上塔顶!”


“Working on a brutalist monument like the Pyramid is a dream. It is striking and interesting to see how the country struggled with the future of the building, which on one hand is a controversial chapter in the country’s history, and on the other hand has already been partly reclaimed by the residents of Tirana. I immediately saw its potential, and that it should be possible to make it even more of a ‘people's monument’ instead of demolishing it. The challenging part is to create a new relationship between the building and its surroundings. I am confident our design establishes this. I am looking forward to seeing young people and for the first time older people climbing the steps to the rooftop!”



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图/Image: © MVRDV



“地拉那金字塔”的转变让我们看到了如何使建筑适应新时代的要求,同时保留其复杂的历史,它向我们展示了粗野主义历史建筑更新的无限可能。这个项目也符合联合国设定的若干可持续发展目标。与其拆除原有的结构,设计师选择遵循循环经济的发展原则,对建筑的混凝土外壳进行适应性的再利用。这一设计准则在外部台阶的设计中也得到了进一步体现——原本装饰建筑表皮的石砖被回收再利用,成为制作新混凝土的骨料。


The transformation of the Pyramid shows how a building can be made suitable for a new era, while at the same time preserving its complex history, and demonstrates that historic brutalist buildings are ideal for reuse. The project also meets a number of the Sustainable Development Goals outlined by the United Nations. Rather than wastefully demolish the structure, its robust concrete shell is adapted along circular economy principles. This principle is further developed in the design of the exterior steps, which use the stone tiles that originally adorned the façade as aggregate in the new concrete.


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图/Image: © MVRDV
施工现状:清理内部结构
construction site: clean up exisiting structure


建筑的大部分结构在一年中的多数时间里都向周围环境开放,只有新增的用作教学的“盒子”们需要进行气候控制,从而减少能耗。建筑新增的教学功能推进了城市的教育发展,适应性再利用的改造方案也帮助阿尔巴尼亚向可持续社会进程迈出了一大步。

As the majority of the structure is open to the surroundings for most of the year, only the added boxes housing the educational program need to be climate-controlled, reducing energy consumption. Social sustainability is advanced in the building’s new use, with the educational programme advancing education and preparing the next generation for success.


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阿尔巴尼亚总理Edi Rama出席了动工仪式

Albanian Prime Minister Edi Rama attended the groundbreaking ceremony





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