Nickl & Partner董事Hieronimus Nickl先生有幸接受了德国BauNetz平台的采访。

BauNetz Media是德国的著名的为建筑师,规划师和设计师提供服务的网络平台,致力于提供国际建筑相关的每日新闻。

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在采访中Hieronimus Nickl先生同撰稿人从三个方面探讨了在新型冠状病毒肺炎疫情背景下的医院设计之见解。


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慕尼黑Nickl & Partner管理委员会成员及高管赫尼慕斯•尼克


模式化、灵活性、响应性

Modular, flexible, responsive

赫尼慕斯·尼克就新冠背景下的医院设计之见解

Hieronimus Nickl on hospital design in times of coronavirus


- 在我们目前的所闻和所见中,充斥着陌生或至少不熟悉的术语,例如:紧急诊所、军事医院和数字化诊所等。在中国武汉的缩时摄影视频中,我们见证了一座新的建筑在不到两周的时间内拔地而起。这样的壮举不禁让我们扪心自问我们能做到吗?BauNetz采访了Nickl & Partner(总部位于慕尼黑)的赫尼慕斯·尼克(Hieronimus Nickl),深入了解医院建筑师在当前时期所拥有的宝贵专门技术,以及当前的危机将如何改变未来的规划进程。

撰稿人:Katrin Voermanek

-We are hearing and reading strange, or at least unfamiliar terms: emergency clinic, military hospital, digital clinic. We watch time-lapse videos from Wuhan, China, where a new building emerges from the ground up in less than two weeks, and we ask ourselves: can we manage that too? BauNetz spoke to Hieronimus Nickl from Munich-based Nickl & Partner to understand the valuable expertise experienced hospital architects have at their disposal in these times and how the current crisis could change future planning processes.

By Katrin Voermanek


在柏林,政府在展厅里面搭设病床并将一个大型酒店征用为新型冠状病毒肺炎治疗中心。此外,世界上最大的医疗船停靠在曼哈顿。所有的举措都是因为我们的医疗系统正处于崩溃的边缘。此刻,一个及其专业的建筑学科突然进入公众视野:医院设计。而在之前,我们对此的讨论或记载少之又少。Nickl & Partner在Instagram上发布了多张集装箱式模块的图片。他们究竟要传达什么信息呢?

赫尼慕斯·尼克先生说:“我们可以且应当高效地从他的公司学习如何为不发达国家设计医院。”同时,他明确指出德国的优越感已经荡然无存。

尼克先生补充道:“我们的医院还必须学会更快地改造自己:它们必须更加灵活和高效、必须能够扩张和压缩、必须能够更好地适应新的治疗方式和必要的卫生政策调整。”他表示,标准施工方法和预制模块应用变得越来越有必要,这也是对当前特殊需求的有效回应。

In Berlin, beds are set up in an exhibition hall and a large hotel is requisitioned as a coronavirus treatment centre, and the world's largest hospital ship docks in Manhattan because the healthcare system is collapsing. Suddenly, a highly specialised architectural discipline, about which little is otherwise spoken or written, is in the spotlight: hospital design. On Instagram Nickl & Partner post pictures of a container-based module. What is their message? 

Hieronimus Nickl says that we could - and should - learn quickly from his firm's experiences in creating hospital designs for less developed countries. Clearly, he points out, Germany no longer has any reason to feel superior. Our hospitals must also learn to reinvent themselves more quickly, they must become more flexible and more responsive, they must be able to grow and shrink, they must be better able to adapt to new treatment methods and necessary changes to health policy, says Nickl. 

He mentions standardised construction methods and the use of prefabricated modules as increasingly necessary and a fitting response to the particular needs of today.

2018年,他的公司为印度尼西亚建设了一家袖珍医院——一个基于其所谓的“核心单元”的模块化系统。这是一个设备齐全的预制模块,其支持根据需要和现场可能性增设检查和治疗室、病房和其他功能设施,如药房或招待所等。虽然建筑服务以及建筑和消防条例增加了规划进程的复杂程度,但这一基本原则仍适用于我们目前直面的处境。鉴于双门系统可以用来连接各独立模块,模块化的医院设计尤其适合隔离病人,这一特点高度匹配当前需求。

尼克先生表示:在未来,单人病房的数量将碾压双人或多人病房的比重。在节省空间和确保最佳连接的基础上容纳医院所需的大量建筑服务是集装箱式建筑的挑战之一。为达到这一目的,建筑师们借鉴了造船技术。

In 2018 his firm developed a Pocket Hospital for Indonesia; a modular system based on around what they term a 'core unit'. This is a fully equipped, prefabricated module to which examination and treatment rooms, patient wards and other functions such as a pharmacy or a guest house can be added as required and based on the possibilities of the site. This basic principle is transferable to our current conditions, even if building services, as well as building and fire protection regulations render the planning process more complex. The modular approach to hospital design is particularly suited to isolating patients, which is just what is needed at the moment, since double-door systems can be used to connect the individual modules. In any case, in the future we are likely to see more single than double or shared rooms.

According to Nickl. One of the challenges of building with containers is to accommodate the extensive building services needed for a hospital in a way that saves space yet ensures optimal connectivity. To achieve this, the architects have borrowed techniques from shipbuilding.


但是,尼克先生并不希望将全部精力投入建设方法。在我们的讨论中,他揭示了当前困境下隐藏的政治和社会问题。地毯式医院覆盖方针是一种陈旧的医疗模式,单就人员短缺便已使其触及发展极限。今天,我们需要更多地考虑网络服务,包括数字服务。

尼克先生说:“我们不再需要所处可见的医院。”他认为保障地方群众的基础医疗便捷性更为重要。在专科护理领域,可以采用新的治疗形式,例如:远程医疗。从长远来看,这一举措有助于我们的医疗系统转型。其他国家,诸如荷兰和中东的几个国家,是这方面的先行者。

最后,让我们回到正题:这个国家的建筑师能否在两周内修建一座医院呢?这个时间框架是否也适用于Nickl & Partner的近期提案——在42公顷的Theresienwiese(每年慕尼黑啤酒节的举办地)上用集装箱建造应急医院?

赫尼慕斯•尼克先生认为,只有德国武装部队或联邦技术救援机构才有能力在如此紧迫的时间安排下开展工作。他们为应对各种灾难而生、拥有充沛的物资且掌握迅速建立救援中心的设备,尽管我们的救援中心通常使用帐篷。

However, Nickl doesn't want to focus only on construction methods. In our discussion, he points to the political and social issues that underlie our current problems. The principle of blanket hospital coverage is an old model that has reached its limits due to staff shortages alone. Nowadays, we need to think more in terms of networked services, including digital ones. 

"We no longer need hospitals everywhere," Nickl says. He considers it more important to ensure that people have easy local access to primary care, while specialist care can draw upon new forms of treatment such as telemedicine. This alone would transform our hospital system in the long term. Other countries, for example the Netherlands and several states in the Middle East, are leading the way in this regard. 

Finally, we return to the question of whether architects in this country could build a dinic from the ground up in just two weeks. Would this timeframe perhaps even apply to Nickl & Partner's recent proposal for an emergency hospital built from containers on the 42-hectare Theresienwiese, the site of Munich's annual Oktoberfest? 

Hieronimus Nickl believes that only the German Armed Forces or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief would be capable of working to such a tight schedule. These agencies are prepared for all kinds of disaster scenarios, have the appropriate materials to hand, and are equipped to set up rescue centres very quickly, though typically using tents.


毫无疑问,此等应急措施(包括位于纽约的海军医疗舰)能在短期内解决医疗能力和空间问题。这是目前的一些好消息,但并非长久之计。

尼克先生认为,这场危机必将迫使我们做出持续的变化并反思医院的建设用途。根据尼克的估测,基于现行德国标准,他需要9到12个月的时间来建造一座先进的模块化医院。预期在今年展开相关可行性研究且预计在2021年完成首批项目。

Emergency measures of this kind, including the Navy hospital ship in New York, can certainly solve problems of capacity and space in the short term. That's some consolation these days, but it does not offer a long-term perspective. The crisis must result in lasting changes and a genuine rethinking of how we build and use hospitals, according to Nickl. 

He estimates that it would take him nine to twelve months to build a state-of-the-art, modular hospital according to current German requirements. He expects the feasibility studies to be carried out this year, while he believes that the first projects may be completed in 2021.


尼克先生进一步强调:在长达数年规划和建设期间,折中过程十分重要,这一标准尤其适用于医疗建筑。武汉用时两周完成医院建设震惊世界且尤为典型。德国人对“交钥匙”解决方案往往带有一定的蔑视,因为我们更热衷于“量身定制”。但是,我们可以看到当前的趋势走向:更包容的标准化、预制以及更动态的空间管理。这样,我们可以更灵活地选择建筑用途。

The bottom line, he emphasises, is that there is a happy medium between a planning and construction period of several years, which is typical for a clinic building, and the oft-cited two weeks in Wuhan. While Germans have tended to look at 'turnkey' solutions with a certain disdain, because we are keener on 'tailor-made' solutions, we can now see where the trend leads: to greater standardisation, prefabrication and more dynamic management of space, which in turn offers greater flexibility of use.

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The prototype of the “core unit”; a prefabricated module for flexible hospital buildings

“核心单元”的原型;灵活性医院建筑的预制模块

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The proposed “Hospital Bavaria” on the Theresienwiese in Munich

拟建于Theresienwiese(慕尼黑)的“巴伐利亚医院(Hospital Bavaria)”

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