Nickl & Partner董事Hieronimus Nickl先生有幸接受了德国BauNetz平台的采访。
慕尼黑Nickl & Partner管理委员会成员及高管赫尼慕斯•尼克
Modular, flexible, responsive
Hieronimus Nickl on hospital design in times of coronavirus
- 在我们目前的所闻和所见中，充斥着陌生或至少不熟悉的术语，例如：紧急诊所、军事医院和数字化诊所等。在中国武汉的缩时摄影视频中，我们见证了一座新的建筑在不到两周的时间内拔地而起。这样的壮举不禁让我们扪心自问我们能做到吗？BauNetz采访了Nickl & Partner（总部位于慕尼黑）的赫尼慕斯·尼克（Hieronimus Nickl），深入了解医院建筑师在当前时期所拥有的宝贵专门技术，以及当前的危机将如何改变未来的规划进程。
-We are hearing and reading strange, or at least unfamiliar terms: emergency clinic, military hospital, digital clinic. We watch time-lapse videos from Wuhan, China, where a new building emerges from the ground up in less than two weeks, and we ask ourselves: can we manage that too? BauNetz spoke to Hieronimus Nickl from Munich-based Nickl & Partner to understand the valuable expertise experienced hospital architects have at their disposal in these times and how the current crisis could change future planning processes.
By Katrin Voermanek
在柏林，政府在展厅里面搭设病床并将一个大型酒店征用为新型冠状病毒肺炎治疗中心。此外，世界上最大的医疗船停靠在曼哈顿。所有的举措都是因为我们的医疗系统正处于崩溃的边缘。此刻，一个及其专业的建筑学科突然进入公众视野：医院设计。而在之前，我们对此的讨论或记载少之又少。Nickl & Partner在Instagram上发布了多张集装箱式模块的图片。他们究竟要传达什么信息呢？
In Berlin, beds are set up in an exhibition hall and a large hotel is requisitioned as a coronavirus treatment centre, and the world's largest hospital ship docks in Manhattan because the healthcare system is collapsing. Suddenly, a highly specialised architectural discipline, about which little is otherwise spoken or written, is in the spotlight: hospital design. On Instagram Nickl & Partner post pictures of a container-based module. What is their message?
Hieronimus Nickl says that we could - and should - learn quickly from his firm's experiences in creating hospital designs for less developed countries. Clearly, he points out, Germany no longer has any reason to feel superior. Our hospitals must also learn to reinvent themselves more quickly, they must become more flexible and more responsive, they must be able to grow and shrink, they must be better able to adapt to new treatment methods and necessary changes to health policy, says Nickl.
He mentions standardised construction methods and the use of prefabricated modules as increasingly necessary and a fitting response to the particular needs of today.
In 2018 his firm developed a Pocket Hospital for Indonesia; a modular system based on around what they term a 'core unit'. This is a fully equipped, prefabricated module to which examination and treatment rooms, patient wards and other functions such as a pharmacy or a guest house can be added as required and based on the possibilities of the site. This basic principle is transferable to our current conditions, even if building services, as well as building and fire protection regulations render the planning process more complex. The modular approach to hospital design is particularly suited to isolating patients, which is just what is needed at the moment, since double-door systems can be used to connect the individual modules. In any case, in the future we are likely to see more single than double or shared rooms.
According to Nickl. One of the challenges of building with containers is to accommodate the extensive building services needed for a hospital in a way that saves space yet ensures optimal connectivity. To achieve this, the architects have borrowed techniques from shipbuilding.
最后，让我们回到正题：这个国家的建筑师能否在两周内修建一座医院呢？这个时间框架是否也适用于Nickl & Partner的近期提案——在42公顷的Theresienwiese（每年慕尼黑啤酒节的举办地）上用集装箱建造应急医院？
However, Nickl doesn't want to focus only on construction methods. In our discussion, he points to the political and social issues that underlie our current problems. The principle of blanket hospital coverage is an old model that has reached its limits due to staff shortages alone. Nowadays, we need to think more in terms of networked services, including digital ones.
"We no longer need hospitals everywhere," Nickl says. He considers it more important to ensure that people have easy local access to primary care, while specialist care can draw upon new forms of treatment such as telemedicine. This alone would transform our hospital system in the long term. Other countries, for example the Netherlands and several states in the Middle East, are leading the way in this regard.
Finally, we return to the question of whether architects in this country could build a dinic from the ground up in just two weeks. Would this timeframe perhaps even apply to Nickl & Partner's recent proposal for an emergency hospital built from containers on the 42-hectare Theresienwiese, the site of Munich's annual Oktoberfest?
Hieronimus Nickl believes that only the German Armed Forces or the Federal Agency for Technical Relief would be capable of working to such a tight schedule. These agencies are prepared for all kinds of disaster scenarios, have the appropriate materials to hand, and are equipped to set up rescue centres very quickly, though typically using tents.
Emergency measures of this kind, including the Navy hospital ship in New York, can certainly solve problems of capacity and space in the short term. That's some consolation these days, but it does not offer a long-term perspective. The crisis must result in lasting changes and a genuine rethinking of how we build and use hospitals, according to Nickl.
He estimates that it would take him nine to twelve months to build a state-of-the-art, modular hospital according to current German requirements. He expects the feasibility studies to be carried out this year, while he believes that the first projects may be completed in 2021.
The bottom line, he emphasises, is that there is a happy medium between a planning and construction period of several years, which is typical for a clinic building, and the oft-cited two weeks in Wuhan. While Germans have tended to look at 'turnkey' solutions with a certain disdain, because we are keener on 'tailor-made' solutions, we can now see where the trend leads: to greater standardisation, prefabrication and more dynamic management of space, which in turn offers greater flexibility of use.
The prototype of the “core unit”; a prefabricated module for flexible hospital buildings
The proposed “Hospital Bavaria” on the Theresienwiese in Munich