柏林-勃兰登堡机场 | gmp建筑师事务所
阅读:1918 2020-10-30

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从跑道一侧看航站楼 © Marcus Bredt

2020年10月31日,柏林-勃兰登堡(威利·勃兰特)机场将举行落成验收仪式分别由汉莎航空与易捷航空执飞的两架航班将于14时降落于新机场跑道,这一刻标志着由gmp·冯·格康,玛格及合伙人建筑师事务所主持设计的柏林-勃兰登堡机场正式投入运营。2020年11月1日,德国首都新机场的首飞航班即将正式起飞,首次前往值机柜台及登机口的旅客们可一览气势非凡的屋面之下通高明亮的候机大厅,亲身体验gmp设计建造的空间品质。

On October 31, 2020, Willy Brandt Airport at Berlin Brandenburg starts operations. The airport with the code BER, which was designed by von Gerkan, Marg and Partners Architects (gmp), will be officially opened at 14:00 hours with the landing of a Lufthansa and an Easyjet plane. Before the first departure from the new capital airport on November 1, 2020, passengers will be experiencing their check-in and boarding for the first time under the impressive roof of the high and airy terminal hall designed by gmp. 

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从景观一侧看航站楼 © Marcus Bredt

柏林-勃兰登堡新机场由航站楼主体建筑与坐落在平行起降跑道系统中央的机场城组成,机场维护区域位于西侧,服务和货运区域位于东侧。各个区域均以整体基地主轴线为导向布局,实现在功能和组织上的统一。新规划的轨道、公路以及航空线路都将综合于一个交汇站点,极大地缩短登机换乘距离,最高程度地实现多式联运系统。场地规划从基地东面独特的勃兰登堡文化景观着手,向机场核心区域深入,在机场城范围打造具有城市环境氛围的场地景观。

The Airport consists of the passenger terminal, the Airport City in the center of the parallel takeoff and landing runways, as well as maintenance areas to the west and service and cargo areas to the east. All elements are aligned along the overall axial system and form an architectural and functional unit. The newly built railway, road, and aviation hub converges at one point and thereby ensures that the distances between the different transport modes are as short as possible. Starting from the entrance in the east, the traditional Brandenburg landscape has been remodeled to create cohesive urban open space in the Airport City at the center of the airport.

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航站楼南侧鸟瞰 © Marcus Bredt

gmp的设计手法旨在实现结构秩序、空间布局、功能组织与建筑品质的充分统一。于建筑师而言,设计任务在于打造一个年客流量高达2700万的国际航空中央枢纽,一座功能完善且布局规整的现代机场。因此gmp的设计方案从城市规划角度出发,将未来的城市发展与需求变化纳入考虑,在保证机场体系整体统一的前提下,探讨机场规模扩建的可能性。

The overall design aims to create a building with a succinct identity in which the structural elements are a harmonious part of the functional layout: The architects were faced with the task of creating a central international air traffic hub for up to 27 million passengers per annum in the form of a functional and organizational unit for all aspects of a modern airport. A prerequisite for the design was therefore an urban design concept that ensures that the airport is perceived as a coherent system, taking into account future developments and changes, including an increase in capacity of passengers.

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航站楼落客区 © Marcus Bredt

首先,gmp为所有设计相关问题敲定了一套设计准则,形式如同一本通用手册。这本设计手册从城市规划、功能及设计角度提出构想,说明了各个比例层面的设计要求,由城市规划到轴线尺寸体系,还有建筑体量、材料、色彩和家具等等。此外,整体方案提出了一个水平方向6.25米的基本轴网系统,在此基础上将轴网单元重复7次构成跨度为43.75米大模块单元,模块尺寸参考标准C机型停机位数据,其中包括柏林起降航班中最常见的空中客车A320机型。得益于此,与主机廊厅相连的登机桥间距完美契合机位要求,值机大厅亦沿用了43.75米柱网体系。机场设计巧妙利用多样统一的度量体系消解飞机带来的巨大体量感,着手于符合人体尺度的度量标准,大到空间布局的总体,小到石材铺砖的细部,精细严谨的度量系统贯穿机场整体设计。

To achieve this, gmp at the very start developed design principles compiled in a type of manual that were to be followed by all stakeholders in the design process. The design manual established the town planning, functional, and artistic design concept for the airport—at all scales—from the urban design aspects to the main axes and dimensional systems through to the building volumes, materials, colors, and furniture. Furthermore, the entire scheme has been developed on a basic horizontal grid of 6.25 meters. Multiplied by 7 this results in the supermodule of 43.75 meters, which corresponds to the parking width required for a category C aircraft, including the Airbus A 320, the most frequently used aircraft in Berlin. This large grid of 43.75 m determines the spacing of the main piers with their distinctive passenger bridges as well as that of the columns in the check-in hall. The play with the common denominator brakes the dimensions of a plane down to a human scale and can be experienced at all scales-from the large building elements to the space structure and down to details such as the pattern of the natural stone flooring.

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值机区域 © Marcus Bredt

模块化以及功能空间的极佳灵活度是航站楼建筑在结构推敲和方案设计方面遵循的核心原则。从城市规划与总体布局的角度观察,航站楼通过到达大厅与停机场相连,是整个机场基地的核心建筑。航站楼综合体由主候机大厅及其前方机廊厅组成。航站楼建筑以其简明典雅的气质,运用理性规整的柱式元素构成建筑与景观、楼体与场地之间完美过渡,给予柏林-勃兰登堡机场基于本身特定场地全新的建筑诠释。通高明亮的候机大厅兼具登机手续办理以及行李处理等核心功能,通过车行前广场及火车站的交通接驳,到港和出港旅客人流汇聚于此。在旅客人流引导方面,设计沿用独有的人流分区思想,即分离出发楼层-到达楼层以及申根服务区-非申根服务区,这一构想通过登机口配套的三层连桥通道实现。

Modularity and maximum functional flexibility were also key parameters for the construction and design of the terminal building. It lies between the land-side area and the apron and forms the architectural and structural core of the airport. It consists of the main hall with its piers. The generous and clear layout of the terminal hall in combination with the colonnade motif of the transition between architecture and landscape, define the characteristic style of the new Berlin Brandenburg Airport. The high and airy main hall accommodates the key functions, such as check-in and baggage handling. It is where the passenger flows converge from the air-side area and the land-side area, i. e. from the railway station and the drop-off area. A special solution was found for directing passengers to the separate arrival and departure levels of the terminal and for channeling Schengen and Non-Schengen passengers along separate routes. This is achieved via three-story bridges leading up to the gates.

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航站楼入口 © Marcus Bredt
航站楼主体总长为220米,其均衡明晰的建筑格局与全玻璃幕墙形成的自然采光相结合,创造具有明确导向与舒适体验的空间品质。将近20米高的大厅幕墙满足了机场建筑追求极致轻盈通透的要求。全玻璃幕墙采用预应力拉索承重结构,仅装配水平方向的受力构件,因而提供开放的全景视野,旅客可自由远眺机场四周景观。高约30米的十字钢柱依照43.75米模块网络排列,承托总面积为49000平方米的屋面结构。从车行前广场到机廊厅,航站楼内各功能区域综合在一座端庄大气的屋顶之下,横跨于出发厅与到达厅之间。

The clear spatial arrangement and the natural lighting ensure easy orientation and create space with a high amenity value. This is further enhanced by the approx. 20 m high facade of the hall. Its structure is based on a pre-tensioned cable system in which the only structural members are horizontal profiles, thereby allowing the passengers unobstructed views of the entire outside panorama. Supported by nearly 30 m-high steel columns spaced at 43.75 m, the 49,000 square meter roof of the 220 m-long terminal building covers in one large deck the different functional areas from the drop-off area to the piers, connecting the land-side and air-side areas.

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登机廊桥 © Marcus Bredt

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行李处理系统 © Marcus Bredt


设计竞赛 1998年设计竞赛第一名
2003年招标程序失效,重新进行邀请招标(按照德国VOF程序)
2005年获设计委托设计
设计 曼哈德·冯·格康和胡贝特·尼恩霍夫及汉斯·约阿希姆·帕普
总体设计项目负责人 汉斯·约阿希姆·帕普 
航站楼项目负责人 马丁·格拉斯 
室内装修项目负责人 佩特拉·夏洛特·考舒斯
机场运营建筑项目负责人 吕迪格·冯·赫尔莫特
项目合同管理 约翰·科恩

现场管理 克努特·内尔 

柏林-勃兰登堡(威利·勃兰特)机场设计联合体 

gmp总体规划设计有限公司(主导规划设计)

JSK国际建筑工程设计有限公司(主导总体设计)

项目管控 WSP-CBP 工程咨询有限公司 

结构设计 sbp 施莱希工程设计咨询有限公司以及舒斯勒工程设计有限公司

照明设计 Conceptlicht

视觉传达设计 Moniteurs

场地设计 柏林魏斯景观建筑

业主 柏林舍内菲尔德机场有限公司

航站楼建筑面积 32.6 万平方米

火车站建筑面积 2.5 万平方米

机场运营建筑面积 3.5 万平方米

临近航站楼停车库/租车中心建筑面积 13 万平方米

建设周期 2008年-2020年

Competition in 1998 1st prize

In 2003 cancellation of the award procedure, restart under the Contracts Procedure for Professional Services (VOF). Award Comissioning 2005 

Design Meinhard von Gerkan and Hubert Nienhoff with Hans Joachim Paap 

Overall Project Lead Hans Joachim Paap

Project Lead–Terminal Hall Martin Glass 

Project Lead–Interior Fit-out Petra Charlotte Kauschus 

Project Lead–Service Buildings Rüdiger von Helmolt

Contract Management Jochen Köhn

Construction Management Knut Nell 

Planungsgemeinschaft Flughafen Berlin Brandenburg Willy Brandt 

gmp Generalplanungsgesellschaft mbh (project design lead), 

JSK International Architekten und Ingenieure mbH (overall designgeneral planning lead) 

Project Management WSP-CBP Beratende Ingenieure GmbH 

Structural Engineering schlaich bergermann and partner, Schüßler-Plan Ingenieurgesellschaft mbH

Lighting Design Conceptlicht 

Visual Communication Moniteurs 

Landscape Architecture WES Berlin 

Client Flughafen Berlin-Schönefeld GmbH

GFA of Terminal 326,000 m² 

GFA of Railway Station 25,000 m² 

GFA of Service Buildings 35,000 m² 

GFA of Parking Garage/Car Hire Center Close to Terminal 130,000 m²

Construction Period 2008–2020




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